Monday, March 17, 2014

Ahmadiyya Khilafat and the new Mujaddid

Origins of Ahmadiyya Khilafat

After the death and departure of Hadhrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (as) in May 1908, the Ahmadiyya Community invented and established the institution of Khilafat to continue the goodwork and divine mission of the Promised Massih. It is interesting to note that the Promised Massih (as) himself established the Sadr Anjuman Ahmadiyya for this purpose in 1906 and made it very clear that after his departure, the Anjuman shall be final decision-making body for the Jamaat. Yet, after the death of the Founder, all members of the Community including the highest governing body, agreed upon the institution of the office of Khalifatul Massih and elected Hadhrat Al-Haj Maulvi Hakkim Nur-ud-Din Sahib (ra) of Bhervi as the first Khalifa of the Community.

During the time of Khalifatul Massih Awwal, all Ahmadis worked together, as per the wish and Al Wassiyat of the Promised Massih (as). This was a period when devout disciples of the Promised Massih (as) known for their spiritual wisdom and religious knowledge and personal commitment for preferring faith above the worldly considerations were still around.

Contrary to the mistaken notion of most Ahmadis today, the Khalifa is not appointed by Allah (swa). He is appointed by an electoral college of prominent members within- the Majlis ShuraThe system worked smoothly according to the commandments of Allah, the teachings of Hazrat Muhammad (sa) and Hazrat Massih Ma’ud (as).

One Hundred Years of the Split

Khilafat as an instition generally worked for the welfare of the members, especially in the early days. The Khalifa is guided by his chosen advisors and the Maulvis within. During the first Khilafat, all his administrative decisions were recorded as taken in the dual capacity of the President of the Sadr Anjuman Ahmadiyya. However, after the death of Maulvi Hakkim Nur-ud-Din Sahib (ra) in March 1914, the community split into two: the fraction led by Maulvi Muhammad Ali Sahib, a companion of the Promised Massih (as) refused to accept the leadership of the eldest son of the Promised Massih, Hadhrat Mirza Bashir-ud-Din Mahmud Ahmad on perceived grounds of deviation from the teachings of the Promised Massih (as).

March 2014 marks the one hundred years of the Great Split /fractional division in the Jamaat-e-Ahmadiyya. Thereby, it also marks the centenary of the establishment of the Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement (LAM). Maulvi Muhammad Ali’s considerable grasp of religious subjects and the intellectual foundations of Islam, coupled with his command of English language had made him an especially able ambassador of the Community in its early days. His scholarship and learning was so much that the Promised Massih (as) himself advised him to write books in English to spread his ideas in Europe and America. After the Split, in their separate ways, both the fractions- the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community (AMC) and the LAM- produced a great deal of literature and mass of material for the propagation of Islam.

By the end of the first century of their separate existence, both the fractions have been able to work upon the goal of taking the message of the Promised Massih (as) to the corners of the earth, at least in a metaphorical sense. It needs to be added though that much work remains unfinished and incomplete in translating the pious wishes of the Promised Massih (as) to accomplish the victory of Islam over all other ideologies, due to the divisions within the Jamaat and the parallel tracks the followers have fallen into. Certainly, the situation profoundly indicates that the Islamic Mission will require the august physical presence and leadership of the elects of Allah (twa) as a unifying force and also, to explain Islam to a new century and to address the complex new issues.

Role and Status of the Khalifa

In the AMC, the second Khilafat of Hadhrat Mirza Bashir-ud-Din Mahmud Ahmad (ra) extended over a period of half a century (b.1889; 1914-1965) and as such, has had a defining impact upon the construction of Ahmadiyya Khilafat as a religious institution. In the early part of his Khilafat, Hadhrat Khalifa Sani consistently advocated the coming of Prophets and Divine reformers in future, as we have noted in the Blog else where  (1;2;3;4). In his magnum opus Tafsir-ul-Qur’an, Hadhrat Khalifa Sani (ra) repeatedly spoke about the coming of Muajddidin till the Day of Judgement. Even in his Declaration of 20 February 1944, whereby he announced the fact of his being as the personal fulfilment of the Prophecy on Musleh Maoud, Hadhrat Khalifa Sani clearly indicated about the coming of other spiritual sons and indeed the second coming of the Musleh Maoud himself in a later period.

The physical attack on the person of Hadhrat Khalifa Sani in March 1954 brought out in a stark manner the dangers confronting the Jamaat from the hostile opponents. And to meet with the challenge of eventualities, certain measures were taken, including the formulation of rules and procedures, to ensure the continuity of the institution of Khilafat on the lines of the Catholic Dispensation in Rome. It is the rigid adherence to the rules originally drafted in the 1950s without change even in a new age that has ensured the perpetuation of the Khilafat within the physical family of the Promised Massih (as).

The measures taken to / rules originally framed for, protecting the institution of Khilafat from external threats has had unintended consequences in course of time. By virtue of his powers of control within, the position and status of the man- elected Khalifa was elevated in the minds of the ordinary Ahmadi believers. It eventually descented to the construction of the idea of infallibility around the office of Khalifa. That is the backdrop against which the Ahmadi people have twisted their original beliefs about the appearance of a Mujaddid at the turn of a new century.

Appearance of a Mujaddid

In the early history of Islam, the Khulafa-ur-Rashidun never subscribed to nor did the Muslims allow them to claim any infallible authority over the people. As servants of Islam, they limited their authority to the protection of the Shariah and did not trample upon the teachings of Islam. Thus, in the true Islamic tradition and conception of Khilafat, the Jamaat-e-Ahmadiyya strongly and eloquently and persuasively argued the case for the coming of Divine Elects, despite the completion of Islam as the final religion for all mankind. They have shown that the elected Khulafa-“Khulafa-ur-Rashidun” and the raised Mujaddidin over the centuries in the different parts of the Islamic world contributed to the cause of the perfection of Islam as a living faith of the Muslims in all ages.

As the Ahmadiyya Khulafa constructed their own perceptions and images around the idea of being the high representatives of a living Islam, the believers became curious about the possibility of raising of a Ma’mur-min-Allah- Divinely appointed Mujaddid –in the new century of Ahmadiyyat. The successive Khulafa have made certain explanations to these-the then-apparently hypothetical questions, which subscribes to ideas about the Khalifa as the ideal or best Muslim, a lofty position over and beyond which no Ahmadi can rise up. Hence, the opinions of the man-elected Khulafa doubted the arrival of Muajjdidin in the new century of Ahmadiyyat.

As the elected Khalifa used to receive some words of revelations and divine guidance to lead the Jamaat of Allah in the right direction in the past, the Ahmadis have virtually accepted even these periferal explanations and hypothetical responses and personal opinions as their theology. This is especially evident from the changing attitude of the Ahmadis towards the role and status of the elected Khalifa and also on the question of the future of Divine Guidance and the coming of the elects of Allah. The ‘spiritual’ environment within the Jamaat-e-Ahmadiyya has become such that the people started giving the words of the Khalifa much more value than those of Allah (swt), His commandments, and they have trampled the teachings of Hazrat Muhammad (sa) and Hazrat Massih Ma’ud (as).

The Expulsion Episode and the Ineffective Curse

This is the background in which the expulsion from the Jamaat-e-Ahmadiyya has been applied on Hadhrat Munir Ahmad Azim Sahib and on Zafrullah Domun Sahib in early 2001. The expulsion was only because Hadhrat Munir says that he receives revelations from Allah, and the Domun Sahib has copied those revelations. The Nizamis threatened dire consequences for being a recipient of the Mercy of Allah (swa): (For those at the top of the ladder) even if two are ousted but others in millions shall enter the fold of the Jamaat Ahmadiyya; (they stated that) there shall be a fearful destiny’, a ‘fearful end’ upon us, and we have even been granted the permission” to form our own Jamaat.

And before that, they prayed to be made victorious on the unbelievers, but when the message which they ought to have accepted and believed in had arrived amongst them, they rejected it. Won’t the wrath of Allah then fall upon them when they rejected (His message)? And won’t Allah be angry with the Khalifa who wrongly sent Laanat (curse) upon His servants, basing himself only on the reports of his Amirs?

Vanity and pride, hubris and arrogance-all these are consigned to and consumed by the dustbin of history! The curse of the Fourth Khalifa was not even worth the paper on which it was written: it had no effect on the Divine Manifestation in Mauritus. In this virtual Mubahila, Hadhrat Munir Ahmad Azim Sahib (atba) outlived the Fourth Khalifa and even more, Allah (twa) launched/raised him with a Divine Mission on the very day (April 19, 2003) the Fourth Khalifa mortally departed from this world.  

By the grace of Allah, He has raised us with a Jamaat and He gave also the name of that Jamaat. If you believe, then you believe. If you don’t believe, then we cannot force you to believe. Another arrogance which manifested was when this statement has been made that, two go, millions shall enter the fold of the Jamaat Ahmadiyya – (Bai’ats in millions) so as not to say “so-called Bai’ats/ Confetti Bai’ats”! The confusion about the actual number of Bai’ats and the duplicity of the officials widely prevalent in the Jamaat had been extensively documented in recent years.  

All this happen because they are jealous that Allah (swt) has sent His favour upon such one of His servants whom He loves. Without thinking, they attracted the wrath of Allah upon them. Because of divine revelations bestowed upon this humble servant, 2001-2002, all sorts of programmes were organised to speak against us in all Ahmadiyya Mosques in Mauritius. There were even Mullahs who used to let off steam on the mimbar, like those politicians who stand on their stage to spit fire – there was no difference between the two. Even among stones, there are some from which rivers source, and there are even some which sink into the earth for fear of Allah.

Boycott of Divine Favour

Shame! Shame! Shame! They have covered truth with lies, when they know the truth very well. They learn how to harm us through their boycott, not greeting Salam and they know very well those who do such works. A true believer, whose heart is filled with the fear of Allah and who follows the commandments of Allah does not do such deeds which will cause harm to others. Had they really had faith and the fear of Allah in their hearts, and followed and put into practice all instructions of Allah (swt), and had they not do such deeds forbidden by Allah, then they would have received from Allah better rewards. If only had they realised that!

But unfortunately, they stooped low all the more in their belief in Allah’s commandments than the other faiths. They returned to infidelity because of the jealousy which their hearts conceal. The one who act against the divine commands has really let go of faith to hold to the wrong path, and therefore he has surely been derouted and gone away from the right path. And this despite all the prayers they recite in Namaz (Salat), in the Surah Al-Fatiha, in each Rakah where they say “not (the path) of those upon whom Your wrath is brought down, nor of those who go astray.”

Revolt all the more, boycott all the more; it is you truly who break family ties, whereby a brother cannot invite his sister in a function or vice-versa. Your boycott does nothing to us. It is verily not you who distribute the favours of Allah.

Allah (swt) says in the Quran:

وَ اللّٰہُ یَخۡتَصُّ بِرَحۡمَتِہٖ مَنۡ یَّشَآءُ ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ ذُو الۡفَضۡلِ الۡعَظِیۡمِ  ۝

Wallahu yakh-tassu bi-rahmatihii mayy-yashaaa: wallaahu zul-fazlil-azim. 

“But Allah selects to give His favour to whom He wills, and Allah is the possessor of great bounty.”

Here Allah (swt) is not talking about mundane favours like a so-called Amir has stated: cars, rice-cookers, refrigerators as favours etc.

“Allah selects to give His favour to whom He wills” means that Allah does not need to take permission from Mr. Valikut-Tabshir, Valikul-Ala, Mr. Moussa or Amine etc.

Do not they know that Allah (swt) has power over all things without accounting to anyone? He does what He pleases and He knows where to send His divine favour. 

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