Islamic Law is divine in origin and is based on divine revelation. Being divine in origin, Islamic Law is distinct from human law which is the outcome of customary rules and which can never, with perfect success, produce uniformity of conduct within the field of action to which they apply as do the divine laws with their specified norms of good and bad, virtue and vice.
Divine Laws are the standards of right conduct and provide guidance, not only in establishing a well-ordered society, but also in distinguishing between “good” and “evil”. As a well knit system of obligation they safeguard the rights of all, and as the product of divine wisdom which alone knows what is absolute good, they ensure the welfare of the entire humanity. The peculiarity of Divine Law is that it is eternal and immutable and yet contains principles broad enough to meet the growing needs of society.
In contradistinction to this, human laws are based on human reason which is liable to err. Further, they are made according to the needs of society and to sub-serve its interest, hence they change with the change in society. They depend for their existence on the vagaries of public opinion or upon the whims and fancies of a ruling monarch and, as such, cannot represent that unity of divine law which results in the uniformity of society.
Divine Law is a declaration on all matters and provides for every possible eventuality and this is the claim advanced by the Quran itself: “And We have revealed to you a Book as an exposition of all things.” (16: 90)