Saturday, April 23, 2011

Khalifa Sani on Mujaddidin in Future



In the previous article on the issue, published on April 16, 2011, we have presented the interpretation of several verses of the Holy Qur’an, offered by Hadhrat  Mirza Basheeruddin Mahmud Ahmad (ra) in which he reflected on the status of Mujaddidin or Divinely inspired Teachers and Reformers. We are providing below some more points explained by Khalifa Sani (ra) in the course of interpretation of other Chapters and verses in the Holy Qur’an.

The explanation contains impressive insights on a range of complex issues: the object and purpose of Mujaddidiyyat, the time and consequence of appearance of a Mujaddid, how to test the veracity of a claimant and what benefit believers will gain by joining him etc. These issues are addressed in addition to the question about their appearance in the coming centuries as well. At a time when the mainstream Ahmadiyya Community is preaching that no Mujaddid will ever appear in future, the considered opinion of Hadhrat Musleh Maoud (ra) on the future of Mujaddidin speaks for itself.

1. MUJADDIDIN WILL APPEAR IN FUTURE:

Holy Qur’an states in verse 10, Surah Al Hijr:

“Verily, We Ourselves have sent down this Exhortation, and most surely We will be its Guardian”

In explanation of the verse, Hadhrat Khalifa Sani (ra) described the Divine scheme of sending Mujaddidin in every age to secure and preserve the Holy Qur’an. He discusses the establishment of the Ahmadiyya Community by the Mujaddid of the 14th Century Hadhrat Ahmad (as) and finally writes about the situation in future:

“As regards the future, our belief based upon promises made in the Qur’an is that whenever Muslim forget, or fall away from, the teachings of the Qur’an, God will, by raising heavenly Reformers, restore to them their faith in pristine purity. The teachings of the Qur’an will thus remain effective for all time and will ever continue to enjoy divine help and protection”. [HQ, 15: 10, Five Volume Commentary on the Holy Qur’an, Volume III, pp. 1265-66].

2. The apearance of a Mujaddid is a Divine Blessing:


“By Our own command. Verily, We have ever been sending Messengers,
As a mercy from your Lord. Verily, He is the All-Hearing, the All-Knowing,


the Lord of the heavens and the earth and all that is between them, if you would only have faith”. 


In explanation of these verses 6-8, in Surah Al Dukhan, Hadhrat Khalifa Sani (ra) writes: 

“The advent of a Divine Reformer or of a new revelation is indeed a great mercy of God to mankind. It seems that a Prophet or a Divine Reformer comes in response to the agonized cries of righteous men of the time that God might raise one who should call and lead erring humanity to the way of righteousness; and God does raise a Prophet or a Divine Reformer in the fullness of time. Being All Knowing, He knows full well when the spiritual needs of mankind call for the appearance of a Prophet. The (third) verse points to the object of appearance of a Divine Reformer which is to call men to God, the Lord of the heavens and the earth, Who gives life and causes death. [HQ, 44: 6- 8, Five Volume Commentary on the Holy Qur’an, Volume IV, pp. 2385, UK: Islam Int’l Publications (1988)].


3. Mujaddid comes at a time when the earth is spiritually parched:

“Have you not seen that Allah sends down water from the sky, and causes it to flow in the form of streamlets in the earth and then brings forth thereby herbage, varying in its colours? Then it dries up and you see it turn it yellow; then He reduces it to a broken straw. In that verily is a reminder for men of understanding”

(Holy Qur’an,  verse 22, Surah Al Zumar).

In explanation of the verses, Khalifa Sani (ra) writes:

The verse means to say that when the earth becomes spiritually parched, God send down rain in the form of Divine revelations and then it receives a new life and fruits and flowers of different hues, tastes and flavours grow, i.e., when a Divine Reformer appears, a community of righteous and God-fearing men is born, and pious and learned Ulema teach men the Word of God. Then there is a long interval and God’s Word is forgotten and His commandments are defied and disobeyed. Again, the earth becomes parched and dried up and again, a generation of evil men, who are as good as dry fuel fit to be thrown into fire, is born and takes the place of good men. Thus the circle goes on. [HQ, 39: 22, Five Volume Commentary on the Holy Qur’an, Volume IV, pp. 2274-75].

4. Mujadid comes to lit up the spiritual landscape

And a Sign for them is the night from which We draw forth the day, and lo! They are in darkness.


And the Sun is moving on the course prescribed for it. That is the decree of the Almighty, the All-Knowing God.


And for the moon we have appointed stages, till it becomes again like an old dry branch of palm tree”.


In explanation of these verses, Khalifa Sani (ra) writes:

“Night” in Qur’anic terminology represents the period during which no fresh revelation descends from heaven and “day” represents the time when there is present in the world a Divine Reformer. The verse points to the law of alternation of day and night and from it draws the moral that as in the physical world, day follows night, similarly in the spiritual realm when darkness enshrouds the world, a Divine Reformer is raised to dispel it, and then, again, after the lapse of a long time, spiritual light disappears and there is darkness all around. The phenomenon continues uninterruptedly in both the physical and spiritual worlds.

In the spiritual realm, the sun may represent a Law-bearing Prophet. As in the spiritual sense, the sun stands for a Law-bearing Prophet, so does the moon represent a Prophet who follows the Shari ‘at of the Law-bearing Prophet and who derives all spiritual light and life from him”. [HQ, 36: 38-40, Five Volume Commentary on the Holy Qur’an, Volume IV, pp. 2196-97].

5.  Mujaddid brings in spiritually-elevating ideas


Holy Qur’an states in verse 6, Surah Al Jathiyah:

And in the alternation of night and day, and the provision that Allah sends down from the sky, whereby He quickens the earth after its death, and in the change of the winds, are Signs for a people who try to understand”.


In explanation of the verses, Khalifa Sani (ra) writes:

“This verse further says that as light follows darkness, similarly when spiritual darkness spreads over the entire earth, God creates new light in the form of a Prophet or Divine Reformer to Whom He reveals Himself. And just as winds carry pollen from male to female trees in order to fecundate them, in the same way the spiritually elevating ideas that emanate from a Divine Reformer impregnate the minds of men and bring about spiritual revolution in them”.  [HQ, 45: 6, Five Volume Commentary on the Holy Qur’an, Volume IV, pp. 2397].


6. The Criterion to test truth of a Mujaddid

Holy Qur’an states in verse 29, Surah Al Mu'min:

And a believing man from among the people of Pharaoh, who concealed his faith, said: ‘Will you slay a man because he says, ‘My Lord is Allah’, while he has brought clear proofs from your Lord? And if he be a liar, on him will be the sin of his lie; but if he is truthful, then some of that which he threatens you with will surely befall you. Certainly Allah guides not one who is a transgressor and a liar”   


In explanation of the verses, Khalifa Sani (ra) writes:

It seems that under the influence of Pharaoh’s wife who was a very righteous woman (66:12), some other members of his household had also believed in Moses and the “believing man” might have been one of them. The good man kept his faith concealed in order to give expression to it at a suitable occasion. The bold manner in which he expressed his belief and spoke to the people of Pharaoh shows that the concealment was not due to fear.   

The verse also embodies an invaluable criterion to test the truth of the claim of a Divine Reformer; viz., that (1)  a forger of lies is never allowed to grow and prosper and that (2)  the opponents of a Divine Reformer do not go unpunished.  [HQ, 40: 29, Five Volume Commentary on the Holy Qur’an, Vol. IV, pp. 2301].

7. Disciples of a Mujaddid will face trouble from family and society


Holy Qur’an states in Surah Al Abasa:

“On the day when a man flees from his brother,
And from his mother and his father,

And from his wife and his sons,

Every man among them that day will have concern enough to make him indifferent to others”


In explanation of these verses, Hadhrat Khalifa Sani (ra) writes:

In time of tribulation and sorrow a man is apt to forget even his nearest relations. He has his own troubles to keep him occupied. Such will be the condition of disbelievers on the Day of Resurrection. The advent of the Holy Prophet has also been likened to “resurrection” in the Qur’an, as also the advent of every Divine Reformer. With the advent of a Divine Messenger a wide gulf intervenes between believers and disbelievers, however closely related they may be. It is to this unpalatable truth that Jesus referred when he said:

I have come to set a man against his father, a daughter against her mother, young wife against her mother-in-law…” (Matt. 10:35) [HQ, 80: 35-38, Five Volume Commentary on the Holy Qur’an, pp. 2769].

8.  Respond to a Mujaddid and Succeed in Life:

Holy Qur’an states in Surah Al Ahqaf, verses 32-33:


O our people, respond to Allah’s Summoner and believe in Him. He will forgive you your sins, and protect you from a painful punishment’.



‘And whoso does not respond to Allah’s Summoner, he cannot escape Him in the earth, nor can he have any protector beside Him. Such are in manifest error’.

In explanation of these verses, Hadhrat Khalifa Sani (ra) writes:

These verses “contain some basic arguments which establish the truth of the claims of a Divine Reformer. First, people are cleansed of sins and impurities and become a model of virtue and righteousness through the teaching revealed to him and by his own ennobling example. Secondly, the Divine Reformer does eventually succeed in his mission as it is God’s unalterable decree and law that Truth must prevail and falsehood must come to an evil end. The disbelievers cannot alter the Divine Decree, try as they might. The gods which they adore leave them in the lurch when they are confronted with the consequences of their wicked deeds.” [HQ, 46: 32-33, Five Volume Commentary on the Holy Qur’an, Vol. V, pp. 2420-21].


For the first part of this essay, click here

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